
Objective:
To
provide activities to introduce concepts about the pulley
Materials:
1,000 gram spring scale, 1,000 gram weight, 5 single pulleys, 2 double
pulleys, 1 triple pulley
Large
group activity:

Demonstrate
for the students the use of the pulley.

Inform
students that a pulley is a wheel with a rope or chain wrapped around it.
Pulleys are often used to change the direction of a force or create a mechanical
advantage.

Encourage
students to use these centers as a springboard to heighten their interest
in and understanding of how the pulley can make work easier.
Centers:
Allow
students to participate in the centers involving pulleys.

Center
1: Heave Ho.
Allow students to lift a variety of objects using a hanging pulley tied
to a board and a pulley that moves along a string attached to a board.
Ask which system takes less force to lift the same load the same distance.
(The moving pulley attached to the board requires less force since half
of the wight is supported by the board. The first pulley acts as
a seesaw with the force on one end being equal to the weight of the resistance
or load).

Center
2: Double Trouble.
Ask the students if the way that you attach the rope to the two single
pulleys make a difference. Ask the students to make inferences in
response to these questions:

How are
the two pulley arrangements different from the single pulley?

Does the
amount of force needed seem different in either arrangement?
Allow
students to use a spring scale to compare the amount of force needed for
each.

Objective:
To apply principles of simple machines to create and use simple machines.
Materials:
The Littles and the Trash Tinies class set of books, fruitcake
recipe and ingredients, kitchen tools, pictures of a carnival
Small
group activity:

Provide ingredients and recipe
for students to create a simple nocook fruitcake in small groups.
Large
group activity:

Present the week long activity
of creating a "Carnival of Rides for the Littles."

Discuss that rides at the fair
use simple machines.

Discuss and list as a large
group the varied simple machines that are used in varied rides.

Tell students that they will
be working in cooperative groups to construct rides consisting of simple
machines for the Littles.

Tell the students that they
should build the rides for pretend people three inches high.

Briefly review each simple machine.
Centers:
Allow students to explore
the centers.

Center 1: Play Kitchen.
Use varied kitchen tools that are simple machines to create a cooking center
or a play kitchen with utensils.

Center 2: Kitchen Mechanics.
Let students divide into cooperative groups to identify the simple machines
in kitchen tools. Discuss uses.

Center 3: Picture This.
Have students look through tool and kitchen appliance catalogs. Encourage
them to look for different applications of the various simple machines.
Have students sort and glue these pictures according to the simple machines
contained within.
Musical
connection:

Have a variety of musical instruments.

Ask students to identify what
simple machines are present in these instruments.

Make a list of each instrument
and the simple machines are evident.
Large
group activity:

Ask students to share ways that
a lever, inclined plane, screw, wedge, wheel and axle, pulley are used
in every day life.

Show students pictures of a
local amusement park or fair. Have them identify the various simple machines
found in each attraction and describe how the simple makes the mechanism
work (sky lift, bullet, merrygoround, ring the bell, etc.).

Objective:
To expand and integrate skills and concepts.
Materials:
index cards, marbles, junk materials
Science
connection:

Use index cards as an inclined
plane.

Use marbles to roll down the
index card at different heights.

Use blocks to raise the height
of the inclined plane.

Discuss momentum of the marble.

Ask students to predict how
far each marble will roll at each height.
Cooperative
group work:

Provide varied materials at
each table for the students to begin planning for their ride at the "Littles
Carnival." Students may bring in junk materials for the project objective,
to use problem solving skills to design an attraction at an amusement park.

Put students in groups of 3
or 4. Then ask them to think about the simple machines we have been studying.
How could you apply what we have learned to make a ride or attraction at
an amusement park?

Students will need to develop
a written proposal that includes: which simple machines their attraction
will use, how it will work, and the materials they will need to complete
this project.

Assessment: Student completed
proposal form.
Social
studies connection:

Plan a "Littles MiniSociety."

In each cooperative group, tell
the students that they will be taking out a loan to purchase the materials
to build their project.

Each group will be asked to
select a loan officer, record keeper for the money borrowed and spent,
and a recorder to produce a written record of plans and tasks accomplished.

The group will need to decide
how much to charge for the rides in order to pay back the loan. Included
in the discussion should be the supply and demand concept and that too
high a price could negatively influence others from buying a ride.

At the end of the project, a
written record of how much spent and how much made from the rides as well
as profit will need to be turned in as a group project.

Other projects such as decorations
around the exhibit could be included in this group work. The group
will also be asked to plan advertisement for their Littles ride. Also included
should be a decision about music or other extras.

Objective:
To expand and integrate skills and concepts.
Materials:
junk materials
Math
connection:

Make up some problem solving
questions relating to the Littles material.
Cooperative
group work:

Provide varied materials and
guidance for the carnival project.
Language
arts connection:

Write a daily journal of each
day's progress concerning the carnival project.
Social
studies connection:

Work on the minisociety plans.

Objective:
To expand and integrate skills and concepts.
Cooperative
group work:

Provide time and guidance for
working on the carnival project as well as the minisociety plans.
Language
arts connection:

Ask students to work in journal
compiling the daily progress of the project.

