Content Background
Student Preparation
Content Strands
Process Strands
Benchmarks and Performance Standards
Content Maps
Content Outline
Performance Tasks
Rubrics for Performance Tasks
Instructional Activities
Materials and Resources
Web Links
Georgia Quality Core Curriculum References
Iowa Tests of Basic Skills References
References to National Standards
 
  Day 11 
 
Objective:  To provide activities to introduce concepts about the pulley 

Materials: 1,000 gram spring scale, 1,000 gram weight, 5 single pulleys, 2 double pulleys, 1 triple pulley 

Large group activity: 

  • Demonstrate for the students the use of the pulley. 
  • Inform students that a pulley is a wheel with a rope or chain wrapped around it.  Pulleys are often used to change the direction of a force or create a mechanical advantage. 
  • Encourage students to use these centers as a springboard to heighten their interest in and understanding of how the pulley can make work easier. 
Centers: 
Allow students to participate in the centers involving pulleys. 
  • Center 1:  Heave Ho.  Allow students to lift a variety of objects using a hanging pulley tied to a board and a pulley that moves along a string attached to a board.  Ask which system takes less force to lift the same load the same distance.  (The moving pulley attached to the board requires less force since half of the wight is supported by the board.  The first pulley acts as a seesaw with the force on one end being equal to the weight of the resistance or load). 
  • Center 2:  Double Trouble.  Ask the students if the way that you attach the rope to the two single pulleys make a difference.  Ask the students to make inferences in response to these questions: 
    • How are the two pulley arrangements different from the single pulley? 
    • Does the amount of force needed seem different in either arrangement? 
    Allow students to use a spring scale to compare the amount of force needed for each.
  
  Day 12 
 
Objective:  To apply principles of simple machines to create and use simple machines.  

Materials:  The Littles and the Trash Tinies class set of books, fruitcake recipe and ingredients, kitchen tools, pictures of a carnival  

Small group activity:  

  • Provide ingredients and recipe for students to create a simple no-cook fruitcake in small groups.  
Large group activity:  
  • Present the week long activity of creating a "Carnival of Rides for the Littles." 
  • Discuss that rides at the fair use simple machines. 
  • Discuss and list as a large group the varied simple machines that are used in varied rides. 
  • Tell students that they will be working in cooperative groups to construct rides consisting of simple machines for the Littles. 
  • Tell the students that they should build the rides for pretend people three inches high. 
  • Briefly review each simple machine.  
Centers:  
Allow students to explore the centers.  
  • Center 1:  Play Kitchen.  Use varied kitchen tools that are simple machines to create a cooking center or a play kitchen with utensils.  
  • Center 2:  Kitchen Mechanics.  Let students divide into cooperative groups to identify the simple machines in kitchen tools.  Discuss uses.  
  • Center 3:  Picture This.  Have students look through tool and kitchen appliance catalogs.  Encourage them to look for different applications of the various simple machines.  Have students sort and glue these pictures according to the simple machines contained within.  
Musical connection:  
  • Have a variety of musical instruments. 
  • Ask students to identify what simple machines are present in these instruments. 
  • Make a list of each instrument and the simple machines are evident.  
Large group activity:  
  • Ask students to share ways that a lever, inclined plane, screw, wedge, wheel and axle, pulley are used in every day life. 
  • Show students pictures of a local amusement park or fair. Have them identify the various simple machines found in each attraction and describe how the simple makes the mechanism work (sky lift, bullet, merry-go-round, ring the bell, etc.).
 
  Day 13 
 
Objective:  To expand and integrate skills and concepts.  

Materials: index cards, marbles, junk materials  

Science connection:  

  • Use index cards as an inclined plane. 
  • Use marbles to roll down the index card at different heights. 
  • Use blocks to raise the height of the inclined plane. 
  • Discuss momentum of the marble. 
  • Ask students to predict how far each marble will roll at each height. 
Cooperative group work:  
  • Provide varied materials at each table for the students to begin planning for their ride at the "Littles Carnival."  Students may bring in junk materials for the project objective, to use problem solving skills to design an attraction at an amusement park. 
  • Put students in groups of 3 or 4. Then ask them to think about the simple machines we have been studying.  How could you apply what we have learned to make a ride or attraction at an amusement park? 
  • Students will need to develop a written proposal that includes: which simple machines their attraction will use, how it will work, and the materials they will need to complete this project. 
  • Assessment: Student completed proposal form. 
Social studies connection:  
  • Plan a "Littles Mini-Society." 
  • In each cooperative group, tell the students that they will be taking out a loan to purchase the materials to build their project. 
  • Each group will be asked to select a loan officer, record keeper for the money borrowed and spent, and a recorder to produce a written record of plans and tasks accomplished.
  • The group will need to decide how much to charge for the rides in order to pay back the loan.  Included in the discussion should be the supply and demand concept and that too high a price could negatively influence others from buying a ride. 
  • At the end of the project, a written record of how much spent and how much made from the rides as well as profit will need to be turned in as a group project. 
  • Other projects such as decorations around the exhibit could be included in this group work.  The group will also be asked to plan advertisement for their Littles ride. Also included should be a decision about music or other extras.
 
  Day 14 
 
Objective:  To expand and integrate skills and concepts.  

Materials: junk materials  

Math connection:  

  • Make up some problem solving questions relating to the Littles material. 
Cooperative group work:  
  • Provide varied materials and guidance for the carnival project. 
Language arts connection:  
  • Write a daily journal of each day's progress concerning the carnival project. 
Social studies connection:  
  • Work on the mini-society plans.
 
  Day 15
 
Objective:  To expand and integrate skills and concepts.  

Cooperative group work:  

  • Provide time and guidance for working on the carnival project as well as the mini-society plans.  
Language arts connection:  
  • Ask students to work in journal compiling the daily progress of the project.
 
 This integrated unit was prepared by teachers of the:
 
Henry County Public Schools
396 Tomlinson Street
McDonough, Georgia 30253
USA
Phone:  770/957-6601
 
Questions/Comments 
 Updated 7/28/98