Day 1

 Objective:  To introduce unit and stimulate interest in simple machines.  Materials: playground equipment, chart paper and markers, cards for Win, Lose, or Draw  Large group activity:   Introduce terms on board to provide vocabulary base:  gravity, friction, and force.  Briefly discuss as large group the meaning of each term.  Playground activity  Take entire class outside for whole group activity.  Select a few students to demonstrate gravity on the monkey bars.  Ask them to climb halfway across bars.  Then, ask them to hang and let go of bars.  Discuss what caused the students to drop to the ground.  Take the students to the slide for a demonstration of friction.  Have students predict if students would travel faster down the slide with or without a towel.  Allow several students to go down the slide with and without the use of a towel.  Note the difference and briefly discuss the use of friction.  Reinforce the utility of gravity to enable the students to go down the slide. Take the students to the swings to demonstrate the concepts of force, work, and inertia.  Discuss the terms as the students demonstrate as they swing. Go back to class for a wrap up.  Language arts connection:    Discuss as a large group what transpired on the playground.  A shared writing experience would be excellent to summarize the experience as well as provide a written format for students to read.  Brainstorm as a group and write the group responses on chart paper.  Circle conceptual terms for a word bank.  Include gravity, inertia, force, and friction.  You may wish to wrap up this lesson with a game of Win, Lose, or Draw.  To play this game, hand a student a card stating a situation that demonstrates gravity, force, or friction.  Using a chalk board the student will draw a picture that illustrates the force described on the card.  A team scores points by explaining what force is at work and what effect it is having on the item in the picture. To reinforce science:   Divide students into cooperative groups.  Ask them to list other examples of demonstrating gravity, inertia, force, and friction.   Spelling activity:   Introduce spelling list: gravity, inertia, force, work, friction, lever, inclined plane, wheel and axle, wedge, screw, load, fulcrum, simple machine, roller coaster, merry-go-round, catapult, resistance, momentum  Language arts activity:   The book, The Littles and the Trash Tinies by John Peterson uses many of the simple machines.   Introduce the book and read the first chapter.  In the first chapter, the Littles made a fruitcake using kitchen utensils.  Review the simple machines demonstrated in these kitchen utensils.

 Days 2-3

 Day 4

 Day 5

 Objective:  To provide activities to expand concepts about force and work.   Materials:  nonfiction books, broom, assorted items such as empty cans, milk cartons, magnets, string, cardboard, rubber bands, cans, straws, ruler, crayons, recording sheets   Large group science activity:    Discuss the terms force and work.  Ask students to tell what happened when they were swinging on the playground.  Language arts connections:    Provide varied nonfiction books to conduct research and write reports on force and work. Read and discuss chapter four of the novel. This chapter used an inclined plane to climb a garbage can.  Review uses of the inclined plane.  Ask the students to create a ladder for someone who is three inches tall (two popsicle sticks and a few toothpicks).  When Jack climbed the magic beanstalk, he found a singing harp.  Have students describe what will happen when they climb the Littles' ladder.    Push Me, Pull Me  Challenge students to use the materials they have been given to move an empty can from one end of a ruler to the other end without touching the can.  Provide ample time for students to formulate a hypothesis, develop a plan, and execute it. Provide time for students to share their ideas and record them on the class chart.  Explain that in order to move their can they had to exert some kind of force.   Ask students what they think a force is (any push or pull).  Skits Ask students to work in cooperative groups to create skits demonstrating the principles of force and work.  Enact the skits for the class.  Physical education activity:   Have relay races to demonstrate force and work.  Suggestions for varied relay races are three-legged races and potato sack races.  Using a broom to push and pull an item in a relay race could be named, "The Clean Sweep."  Discuss the concepts of force and work as they relate to the relay races.

Other Instructional Activities

 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4

This integrated unit was prepared by teachers of the:

 Henry County Public Schools 396 Tomlinson Street McDonough, Georgia 30253 USA Phone:  770/957-6601