explain that bones are hard on the outside and have a soft spongy center
bones hold you up. They give your body its shape. Bones are very strong
and hard on the outside in order to support your body. On the inside, bones
have a spongy layer around the marrow to make them lighter and movement.
tube per student
will work in pairs, filling one tube with rocks and the other with sponges,
taping the ends of the tubes. Students will make comparisons of the two
"bones" in terms of strength and mass.
materials made the "bones" lightweight and strong?
it important for bones to be lightweight and strong?
material would be best?
this material like bone marrow?
Bones of the Body
||to identify and locate the
major bones of the human body
||When you are born, you have
about 300 bones. As you grow, some of these bones grow or fuse together.
When you are an adult you will have 206 bones.
black trash bags
dark long-sleeved shirts and
dark pants for each child
skeleton diagram (handout)
skull mask for each child
"Dem Bones" song sheet
||1. Students will review
and label main bones on skeleton handout. Bones identified include skull
(cranium), jaw, clavicle, sternum, rib cage, rib, spine, humerus, radius,
ulna, pelvis, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, patella, fibula,
tibia, tarsals, and metatarsals.
2. Students will stick pieces
of tape to the outside of the trashbags to form spine, clavicles, sternum,
ribcage, and pelvis. They will use tape on clothing to represent bones
in arms and legs.
3. The students will learn
song "Dem Bones" and use "costumes" (including skull masks) to perform
song and dance.
||1. Completed skeleton costume/model.
2. Journal Entry
Name three bones found in the human body and tell the location of each
|| to identify and name
the joints that connect bones
floppy rag doll
example of a hinge joint
a universal joint
a ball-and-socket joint
|1. Bring a floppy
rag doll to class and explain that without bones, humans would look like
this. Explain that without joints--points where two or more rigid bones
are joined together by muscles and tendons--humans could not bend, swivel,
curl, pivot, and point.
2. Show children the
joint examples. Let them handle the joints to become familiar with the
range of motion of each one. Begin with the hinge joint and ask the children
to describe the motion. Have the students give examples of hinge joints
that they have seen on machines and around their houses. Repeat the discussion
using the universal and ball-and-socket joints.
3. Have students move
some of the major bones in their own bodies, such as the tibia (shinbone),
the patella (kneecap), the femur (thighbone), and the mandible (jawbone).
While touching each bone, have them move that part of the body so they
can locate the nearest joint to the part they are touching. Have the students
describe how they are able to move the joint (up and down, around in a
circle, side to side and up and down, and so on), and in doing so, to identify
which type of joint they believe they have discovered. Except for the ankle
and wrist joints (which are gliding joints, complex combinations of the
ball-and-socket and hinge joints), any joints the students locate can be
categorized as either a hinge joint, a universal joint, or a ball-and-socket
||1. Journal Entry
In cooperative groups, list the joints evident in the body and label each
as a hinge joint, a universal joint, or a ball-and-socket joint.
2. Visual Chart
Create a class chart that classifies joints.
||"Jazzy Joints" (Integrated
Theme Units - Scholastic, Inc., 1993)
to identify what happens when
a bone breaks and to discuss the healing process
to determine proper use of safety
|| A bone may
not look like alive, but it is made of living cells. Some of these cells
are the hard outer coating of the bone. Inside, the bone cells are soft
like a sponge. You can break a bone. The bone hurts and will swell near
the break. The skin often bruises. A doctor will line up the broken bone
so it can heal straight. It is the cells that strengthen and heal the break.
||diagram of a bone (showing
the inside of the bone), x-rays showing broken bones, safety equipment
(bicycle helmet, knee pads, elbow pads, football shoulder pads, etc.)
||Ask if anyone in the class
has ever had a broken bone. Discuss how the accidents happened, their experiences
at the hospital, time in a cast, how the incident changed what they could
do. Show the x-rays. Discuss which bone might be shown in the x-ray and
the trauma to the bone. Show the safety equipment and discuss which bone(s)
||Safety Posters (In cooperative
groups, have the students show children engaged in activities and wearing
the proper safety equipment. Include a safety rule or comment on each poster.)
Journal Entry (Creative Writing - Write the story of a person who breaks
his or her leg. Tell how the accident happens and how this event changes
this person's daily life.)
||Frank Schaffer Publications,
Human Body/Integrated Theme
Units, Scholastic, Inc. 1993
||to measure various objects
using non-standard units of the human body
||Long before there were rulers,
people could measure things:
A cubit is the length
form the elbow to the fingertips.
A span is the measure
of your outspread fingers.
A fathom measures your
A pace is a walking step.
||1. Use your own cubit
to find some measures in the classroom. Work with a partner.
Find something in the classroom
that in the same size as your cubit. What is it?
Guess how many cubits
long the teacher's desk is. Now use your body to find how many cubits long
it really is.
Guess how many cubits
wide the chalkboard is. Measure to find how may cubits wide it really
2. On a piece of paper,
draw a line to show the size of your span.
3. How many friends
standing side by side fit in your fathom?
4. How many paces
is it from the classroom door to your seat?
Work with a partner.
How tall are you in cubits?
Suppose a weaver sells five
fathoms of cloth for three dollars. In this class, whose fathom
would you want to measure with? Why?
||Integrated Theme Units,
Scholastic, Inc., 1993
||to relate the topics of
measurement and the skeletal system to their lives by using measuring tapes
to find the lengths of different body parts
measuring tapes (1 per 2 students)
|1. Review the recording
sheet with the whole group, clarifying what it means to measure your arm
(include the hand or not?), leg, etc.
2. Review the similarities
and difference between measuring with a ruler and measuring with a tape.
3. Demonstrate measuring
a body part on a partner and answer any questions.
4. The students then measure
each other and record the lengths on their sheets.
||As a whole group, ask students
questions that lead them to compare the measurements of their different
body parts. Encourage use of words like "long", "longer", and "longest".
After all have had a chance to contribute, ask students to write three
true statements that compare the lengths of either their own body parts
or those of their classmates.
to add the bones to one leg of your paper bodies!
||Parent volunteers are helpful
for this activity. This activity should come after students are familiar
with the human skeleton and the names of some of its parts. Divide students
into groups (6-8 in each)
ingredients for the recipe (follows)
for each group
measuring cups and spoons
||1 Package dry yeast, dissolved
in cold water
4 cups flour
1 teaspoon sugar
1 teaspoon salt
Mix yeast mixture and 3 cups
of flour. Slowly add about 1 more cup of flour until the mixture can be
kneaded. Take turns kneading it on a floured counter top or table. Sculpt
like clay into a skeleton. Bake at 350 degrees for about 20 minutes. Makes
|1. Explain to the children
that they will be using their measuring skills to make pretzel dough. Review
the type of measuring involved in cooking. Be sure to include the idea
of leveling off measuring cups and spoons!
2. Remind the children of
the proper way to work in a group-- they will need to divide up the work
and give everyone a job. (Assign jobs if necessary.)
3. Read through the ingredients
and directions as whole group and answer any questions. Tell the children
that they will be responsible for naming at least five of the bones in
their skeleton when it is completed.
4. Students make dough with
their group (adults helping when necessary) and form the parts of the skeleton,
combining parts to make the final project. While the skeletons cook, everyone
||When students are finished,
they point out and name at least five of the bones that they represented.
Review the parts together
and then eat!
This integrated instructional unit was designed by
teachers of the:
Henry County School
396 Tomlinson Street
McDonough, Georgia 30253