An Integrated Instructional Unit from Henry County Public Schools
Target Grade Level: 2
Target Concept: Living Things
Target Content Strands: Life Processes  
Geometry, Measurement, & Spatial Sense  
Suggested Time Line: 6 weeks 
Developed By:  Lori Johnson, Kim Kunst, & Ginger McRae
Year Developed: June 1997

Introduction & Overview:

The purpose of this unit is for students to gain a basic understanding of the major body systems: Skeletal, Muscular, Circulatory, Respiratory, Nervous, and Digestive. The unit includes lessons on the basic parts and functions of each of those systems. 

Content Background: 

The human body comes in many sizes, shapes, and colors. Although no two humans are exactly alike, all bodies share certain features that link them as a human family. 

The human body has many systems that work together to keep people healthy, alert, and comfortable. Some of these are the skeletal system (frames the body and protects the soft tissue organs), the muscular system (enables it to move), the circulatory system (circulates the blood), respiratory system (facilitates breathing), nervous system (controls reflexes, movement, communication), and the digestive system (regulates in-take and processes nutrition). 

The human body is warm-blooded and the basic body temperature remains steady despite changes in temperature of the surroundings. Normal body temperature is 98.6 degrees F. An adult's body contains about 4.75 quarts (5L) of blood. 

The human body is made up of about two-thirds water. 

The human body carries out certain functions on its own, without conscious help. Among these reflexes are breathing, blinking, digesting food, and circulation. 
The human body contains 50 billion tiny units called cells. Cells require oxygen for survival. Air, which contains oxygen enters the bloodstream so it can move throughout the body, bringing fresh oxygen to the cells and taking away waste products the cells give off (carbon dioxide). The average person breathes about 2,500 gallons of air each day.
The human body needs food and water to survive. Whatever a human eats must be broken down so it can enter the body in a usable form. This process, called digestion, begins in the mouth and continues in the stomach and intestines. At the end of the digestive process, waste products ( in the form of urine and feces) leave the body.
The human body is run by the brain. This organ receives and interprets 100 million signals every second from the sense organs (eyes, ears, nose, skin, mouth), muscles and nerves. The brain functions even during sleep.
The human body is able to move with the help of more than 600 muscles. Each bone has at least two muscles attached for this purpose. Some muscles act when a person deliberately moves, such as to walk, run, or smile. Other muscles, such as the heart, function automatically.
The most important muscle in the human body is the heart. The heart is about the size of a person's fist. Its job is to pump blood throughout the body, bringing oxygen to the cells and removing the carbon dioxide and other waste products.
The skeletal system is made up of a framework of bone and cartilage. The skeleton of an infant has 300 bones. As an individual grows and develops, some of these have fused, resulting in a total of 206 bones.

Student Preparation: 
  • Students should be able to use linear measurement tools (ruler and tape). 
  • Students should be able to express themselves in written form. 
  • Students should be able to recognize two and three dimensional shapes. 
  • Students should be able to estimate in relation to measurement. 
  • Students should be able to use basic addition and subtraction facts to solve problems.
Curriculum Home Page
Henry County Public Schools
This integrated instructional unit was designed by teachers of the:
Henry County School System
396 Tomlinson Street
McDonough, Georgia 30253
Telephone:  770/957-6601

 Updated 4/17/98