Integrated Unit

Unit Title: Historical and Physical Georgia

Target Grade Level: 8

Target Concept: Change

Target Content Strand(s): Earth, Space, Physical Environment, Patterns and Relationships, Probability and Statistics, Problem Solving, Natural Environment, Communication, Composition, Research, Universal Themes

Suggested Time Line: 3 weeks

Developed By: Cynthia Crutchfield, Sue Hutchinson, Caprise Price, Chara Wootton

Year Developed: 1997

Introduction & Overview:

Georgia, like all land forms, has been through many transformations and is still in a state of constant change.

Many geological processes have created a wide variety of natural wonders. These "wonders" have brought people to visit Georgia and have made the people of Georgia appreciate their beautiful land.

By closely examining areas like the five regions and exploring the seven wonders of Georgia, the learner will appreciate the mystery and the beauty that makes Georgia so unique - that makes Georgia stay "on one's mind."

Content Strands, Benchmarks & Performance Standards, Process Strands, Content Maps, Content Outline, Content Background, Performance Tasks, Student Preparation, Materials & Resources, Instructional Activities, Web Links, Rubrics, QCCs, ITBS, Graduation Test, National Standards

Benchmarks & Performance Standards:

Language Arts

8.63 Apply reading comprehension skills.

A. Choose an appropriate reading technique.

B. Identify causes and effect relationships.

C. Reconstruct the sequence of events using data from a written passage.

8.64 Understand various literary structures and genres.

B. Restate the theme of a piece of literature in his/her own words

8.66 Evaluate adolescent literature in terms of personal choices and delusions.

A. Compare life experiences to that of a central character.

B. Identify cause and effect relationships in a selection.

8.67 Apply effective speaking and listening skills..

B. Demonstrate effective presentation skills.

C. Modify presentations for audiences and purposes.

D. Demonstrate an understanding of the collaborative process.

8.68 Expand spoken vocabulary.

A. Apply listening skills in multimedia presentations.

8.69 Demonstrate correct usage in spoken language.

A. Decide which situations are appropriate for formal or informal language.

8.70 Apply concepts of effective writing.

A. Compose an effective introduction and conclusion.

B. Organize ideas into paragraphs using correct usage, spelling, and capitalization.

C. Add "effective transitions."

8.71 Expand written vocabulary.

A. Choose appropriate words for context.

B. Compose original written pieces using selected vocabulary.

8.72 Use aspects of technology to produce an original work.

A. Incorporate multimedia into student presentation.

8.73 Apply principles of effective research.

B. Locate materials using a variety of sources.

C. Paraphrase and summarize information from sources.

D. Organize data and document sources.

E. Utilize five steps of writing process.

8.74 Draw conclusions and make generalizations based on research findings.

A. Explain the purpose of the research.

B. Defend a conclusion based on the research findings.


8.29 Read, interpret and construct tables, charts and graphs.

A. Select appropriate style and scale of graph to display information.

8.32 Generate and interpret statistics.

A. Calculate measure of central tendency (mean, median, mode, range).

B. Construct frequency tables, scatter plots, line, bar, and circle graphs.

8.33 Demonstrate problem solving skills.

A. Select and apply an appropriate strategy.

B. Solve real life problems involving money.

C. Use physical models and technology to demonstrate mathematical concepts.

D. Use calculator to solve computational problems.

8.25 Understand and apply proportions and percents in a wide variety of situations.

A. Create a model to explain percents.

B. Compute interest and percent of change.


8.10 Explain relationships among earth's processes.

A. Identify the forces of earth's crustal plate movement.

B. Compare the theories of continental movement.

C. Describe the various earth formations caused by crustal movement.

D. Analyze the cyclical flow of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks.

E. Trace earth's geological changes through time.

Social Studies

8.5 Demonstrate an ability to gain and apply information from a variety of maps.

A. Identify and locate selected places, physical features, and climate patterns.

B. Draw conclusions from thematic maps.

8.7 Demonstrate an understanding of graphs, data, and charts.

A. Locate information.

B. Analyze graphs, data, and charts.

C. Evaluate graphs, data, and charts.

D. Create graphs, data, and charts.

Content Outline:

I. Physical and Historical Geology of Georgia

A. Continental Drift

B. Mountains, trenches, rifts, plateaus, and plains

C. Minerals

D. Rock Cycle

II. Analyzing Georgia Statistics

A. Scatter Plots

B. Problem Solving

III. Working with Resources

A. Problem Solving Skills

B. Proportions

IV. Georgia's Natural Environment

A. Georgia's Relationship to the World

B. Physical Features of Georgia

1. Regions

2. Rivers

3. Fall Line

4. Barrier Island

5. Okefenokee Swamp

C. Seven Wonders of Georgia

1. Amicalola Falls

2. Okefenokee Swamp

3. Providence Canyon

4. Radium Springs

5. Stone Mountain

6. Tallulah Gorge

7. Warm Springs

D. Climate

1. Temperature

2. Precipitation

E. Geological/Historical Time in Georgia

1. Paleo Period

2. Archaic Period

3. Woodland Period

4. Mississippian Period

V. Visiting Georgia

A. Communication- Speaking and Listening

1. "Life in the Swamp" monologue

2. Quotes about Okenofenokee swamp

3. Activity- "Georgia on my Mind"

a. Write song

b. draw "swamp life"

c. childhood-swamp vs. urban / now and then

d. "Urbanized" swamp- what if?

4. Seeds of change - novel

a. Read aloud and silently

b. Discuss and predict

B. Composition

1. "My wonder"

2. Travel brochure

C. Research

1. Research regions and 7 wonders

2. Brochure and commercial

D. Universal Themes

1. "Life in the swamp" monologue

2. Seeds of Change - novel

Content Background:

Provide background information to establish the context for the unit and enable the teacher to make inter-disciplinary / intra-disciplinary connections

Student Preparation:

Identify the prior knowledge and skills required of students

Instructional Activities:

Language Arts Okefenokee Swamp and the Seven Wonders

Day One 1. Journal Entry: In Georgia History you learned about the Seven Wonders of Georgia. Create a modern wonder or describe a place that you believe should be one of the Seven Wonders.

2. Play the song "Georgia on My Mind" . A. Discuss the theme of the song and what the song writer was trying to express. B. Question- From what you have learned of Georgia and the Seven Wonders, why is Georgia so unique?

3. Play songs about the Okefenokee swamp. (See web link) A. Discuss why the swamp is considered one of the seven wonders.

4. Storytelling/ Monologue

The teacher will dress in the costume of child/farmer in the 1850's and perform the monologue"Swamp Life." The monologue is a mixture of information taken from the book Settlers of the Okefenokee which is an account of life in the swamps from 1850- 1930. It is written from a child's perspective.

Adaptations: A. Teacher wears a straw hat and reads it as if he/she were storytelling. B. The school's drama teacher can come in as a "guest" dressed in costume and perform the monologue as the character. C. The monologue may be taped and played for the class.

( Settlers of the Okefenokee Swamp, Lois Barefoot Mays, 1975)

5. Discussion: large group discussion ----make a comparison/contrast chart of childhood and life in the past in the swamp and childhood now, where ever your students live. Also, discuss the preservation of the swamp and briefly discuss how it was exploited in the past. During the discussion the teacher may choose to read the book Everglades by Jean Craighead George. This book is about the birth and imminent destruction of the Florida Everglades. (Part of the Okefenokee swamp is in Florida)

(Everglades, Harper Collins Publisher, 1995)

Day Two

1. Journal Entry: Do you think man should leave the Seven Wonders or any natural habitat like that alone? Why or why not?

2. Show colored transparencies or pictures of the swamp from the book The Okefenokee Swamp.Show the map on page 18 and 19 and discuss and review from Georgia history and math what the students have learned about the land formation and the swamp. Quote from the book "a small enchanted corner of the south" and discuss the significance of the quote.

(The Okefenokee Swamp, Time Inc., 1973)

3. Read quotes from the book: Page 20, 1st paragraph; Page 26, 3rd paragraph; Page 29, 2nd paragraph; Page 66, 1st and 2nd paragraph; Page 69, last paragraph; Page 116, 2nd paragraph(meat eaters are also found the novel Seeds of Change.); Page 167, whole page.

--Discuss the swamp and list descriptive words and phrases on a chart

4. Review charts and introduce activity. Hand out activity sheet with the explanation of the activities the students have to choose from.

Materials needed: white construction paper or drawing paper, markers, rulers, colored pencils

Project: It's a Swamp Thing / Students may work alone or in groups of three or four.

A. The students will write a song about the Okefenokee swamp using the words and phrases on the chart and from a list they will generate on their own. They may use a tune they already know and change the words to fit the assignment or they may write their own tune.

Ex: to the tune of "The Old folks at Home" (see attached sheet)

Trudge through the Okefenokee, mossy and mucky,

A land of mystery and terror, a hauntingly peaceful place....

B. Students will draw pictures of swamp life. They will review the chart and try to visualize and capture the swamp in their drawing(s).

C. Students will draw a picture of a childhood a childhood activity and try to recapture "swamp life" and also draw a contrasting picture of childhood today. The students will write short descriptors of the pictures.


Students will write a play depicting childhood in the 1850's in the Okefenokee swamp and write a contrasting play that depicts childhood today in _______________(type in the city)

D. Students will draw picture of life in the swamp if we destroy and exploit the swamp to create urbanization.


Students will write an add that will explain and create a picture with words of what urbanization to save the swamp. They will write a jingle (song) and a slogan to promote their campaign to save the swamp.

Assessment: see attached rubrics for the project "It's a Swamp Thing"

Day three: 1) Journal Entry: Create a swamp monster. Describe it and write a letter from the swamp monster to the government trying to persuade the government to leave the swamp to the living creatures of the swamp.

2. The students will work on chosen activity.

Day Four: 1) Journal Entry: Write a short poem depicting "swamp life".

2. Share projects

Day Five:

1. Journal Entry: You are a modern day explorer who is exploring the Okefenokee swamp. Write a diary entry describing your first day of exploration.

2. Teacher introduces the novel Seeds of Change. (Seeds of Change, Macmillan/Mcgraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1989)

3. Teacher reads aloud the fist chapter of the book.

4. Discussion: Predict what will happen (brainstorm and list many, varied ideas on a chart)

5. Class continues reading/ Choices:

a) silently and individually (class set of books needed)

b) small group reading (3 or 4 students in a group). Students will take turns reading aloud while the other group members follow along. (Class set of books needed or a book for every two students)

c) teacher reads aloud to he whole class . (optional--one book or one book per student)

6) Discussion (5 or 10 minutes before class ends)

---mystery of the swamp

---add to list of descriptive words for swamp (on chart)

Day Six:

1) Journal Entry: What impressions of the swamp did the book create for you? Did your feeling about swamps change as you read? Why or why not?

2.) Continue reading novel.

3) Discussion (last 15 minutes of class--in small groups or whole class)

---predict what will happen to the swamp of Rachel's dad builds the Swamp Land Theme Park.

---discuss why the "Flower Woman" has not moved and what will happen to her if Rachel's father builds on the swamp. (discuss fairness if students say she will have to move)

Day 7:

1) Journal Entry: How do you feel about Rachel as a character? What concerns does she

have that make her seem real to you?

2) Finish reading the novel.

3) Answer questions over book in small groups or individually.

4) Discussion: (last fifteen minutes of class) Come together and discuss book and review the Seven Wonders of Georgia. (taught in math and Georgia History)

Introduce and explain homework assignment.

Homework: Write your own description of a modern "wonder" and persuade the listener to keep it as it is. (2 paragraphs--the first paragraph should describe the wonder and the second paragraph should persuade the reader to keep it as it is.)

Assessment: 60% of the grade will be based on the content of the two paragraphs and the student's persuasion techniques. 40% of the grade will be based on grammar, usage, and spelling. The student will have to revise rough draft on his/her own and write a final copy making sure it is free of spelling and grammar errors.

Day 8:

1) Journal Entry: How did the trip to Georgia change Rachel?

2) Share homework assignment: students will stand in front of the class to read their homework assignment and turn in his/her paper to be graded.

Day 9- 15: The students will be doing a cooperative and integrated project with the Georgia History class. The explanation, details, and assessment of this project will be found in this unit with the Georgia History lesson plans. (This will be the culminating project of the language arts unit.

The order of the activities for Math should be relative to the Science and Social Studies lessons and activities

Scatter plots: Georgia Statistics

Objective: to use scatter plots to determine if two sets of data are related

Suggestions: groups of four; 2-3 days

Materials: graph paper, colored pencils


1. Identify target cities. (Suggestions: Atlanta, Macon, Augusta, Columbus, Athens, Albany, Savannah)

2. Each group will need to collect the necessary data for one or two of the target cities. The groups will share their findings with each of the other groups so that all of them will have the necessary data for all of the target cities. Students need to include the source of their information in their report.

DATA NEEDED: annual rainfall in inches, average high temperature, average low temperature, elevation, average number of tornadoes.

3. Each group will create a scatter plot to explore the relationship between elevation and each of the other four sets of data (elevation & rainfall, elevation & High temp...)

4. Analyze the data and make predictions.

A. Draw a fitted line for the graphs. Have the students discuss which graphs they could draw fitted lines for and which they could not. What does it mean when a fitted line can be drawn, when one cannot be drawn?

B. Describe the correlation shown by each graph.

C. Discuss the connection, if there is one, between fitted lines and correlations.

D. Give the students the elevations of Marietta and Warner Robbins. They should make and explain predictions for these cities using their graphs.

Assessment: student's scatter plots and supported predictions.

Resources: current Almanac

Circle Graph: The regions of Georgia

Objective: to construct a circle graph.

Suggestions: work with a partner to produce individual graphs; 1-2 days

Materials: project page, compass, protractor, calculator, ruler, Georgia Map from Georgia Map Kit, Georgia Geographic Regions map, Circle Graph: The Regions of Georgia

Procedure: follow the directions on the circle graph handout.

Assessment: students circle graphs. (Consider displaying student graph.


Klein, Patricia H. Social Studies Achievement Program Grade 8 Teachers Resource Manual. Conyers, GA: Social Studies Resource.

The MAP Company. Georgia Social Studies Achievement Program: Georgia Map Kit. Conyers, GA: Social Studies Resource.

Displaying Frequency and Measures of Central Tendency: Major Products of Georgia

Objective: to make a frequency table, histogram and a line plot; to calculate measures of central tendency

Suggestions: work individually; 3-4 days

Materials: Georgia Major products Map, Georgia Geographic Regions map, graph paper (optional)


1. Draw the regional boundaries on the products map.

2. Create three frequency table, one for each type of product on the map. List the five regions on each frequency table. Discuss: Is there a need for intervals on the frequency table? tally and record the frequencies.

3. Use the data from the frequency table for minerals to create a histogram.

4. Use the data from the frequency table for manufacturing the create line plot.

5. Use your map to find the frequencies of the agriculture products listed below for the Coastal Plain Region.

peaches, rye, pecans, corn, peanuts, soybeans, cotton, cattle, pulpwood, watermelon, tobacco, hogs

A. Find the mean, median, mode and range of the frequencies of these products.

B. Make a statement that explains what each of the measures you calculated show.

Assessment: presentation of one frequency display. Establish criteria for the presentation.

Explanation of measures of central tendency for agriculture products of the Coastal Plain.


Klein, Patricia H. Social Studies Achievement Program Grade 8 Teachers Resource Manual. Conyers, GA: Social Studies Resource.

The MAP Company. Georgia Social Studies Achievement Program: Georgia Map Kit. Conyers, GA: Social Studies Resource.

Percents and Proportions: Prospector's

Part of this activity will be completed in the science class. The science activities need to be done before the math can be done. The handouts for this activity are in the science section of the unit.

Suggestion: 1-2 days

Problem Solving: Flying Across Georgi

Objective: To solve real life problems, to calculate distance based on a map scale

Suggestions: partners, 2-3 days

Materials: Map of Georgia from the Georgia Map Kit or from the Department of Transportation, Flight Log handout, Flight Report handout, ruler, calculator

Note: decide what type of planes your students will fly. Suggestions are a Cessna 150 or a Tomahawk. Will your students own their plane or rent them. Call a local airport for rental information and requirements, fuel tank size for the plane(s), fuel consumption rate for the plane(s) and fuel cost.


The students' task is to plan a flight from McDonough (city of your choice) across Georgia. Their final destination is any one of the Seven Wonders Of Georgia. The mileage of the trip should be between 290 and 310 miles from the start to the place the choose to visit. The students will measure the distance between two sites and use the map scale to convert the linear map distance to flight distance. The trip back home does not need to follow the same route. Assume that there is an airport at each of the seven wonders and at all large cities. The students will need to keep a log during their trip and complete a report when they reach the site they chose to visit.

Assessment: Write a letter to a relative telling him/her about your trip and preparations for it.

Use correct friendly letter form, punctuation and capitalization. Include a description of the route traveled, the total mileage of the flight to the site, the most interesting thing there, explanation of the expenses and an invitation to come along on the next trip.


Develop an outline for a speech about the trip to be presented to a scout troop.


Day 1 Content Background,

The German scientist (meteorologist) Alfred Wegener had noted similarities between rock records, fossils and climates between rock layers found in Brazil and Africa. In 1915, Wegener formulated a hypothesis that became known as continental drift, which states that the continents were once joined but broke apart and moved slowly to their present locations. Continental drift was not a theory. A theory is an organized series of observations, experimental evidence and thought that is designed to predict or explain a large number of observations, but which had to be tested and analyzed. As it turned out, the idea was at least partially correct.

Wegener called the large landmass made up of all the joined continents Pangaea which in Greek means "all lands" or "all Earth."

Wegener proposed that about 200 million years ago Pangaea split into a northern continent called Laurasia, and a souther continent called Gondwana. Laurasia later split apart to form North America, Europe, and Asia. Gondwana split to form Australia, India, Africa, South America, and Antarctica. These landmasses, Wegener hypothesized, drifted like stone rafts on the denser material below them.

Wegener had put together the pieces of the puzzle in a way that met his scientific criteria. Putting together pieces of evidence to form a whole model is known as synthesis. Wegener's synthesis resulted in a model, or representation of how the continent came to be as they are now. Many of the scientists of his time rejected Wegener's model. Indeed, it was hard to imagine a force strong enough to move continents. They looked for other ways to explain the evidence. Soon a debate began among geologists that was to last half a century. After further evidence was gathered and scientists studied it more thoroughly, they concluded that Wegener's model was accurate. Wegener's hypothesis was incorporated into a larger theory that was one of the most important revolutions geologic thought.

Georgia As It Was Millions of Years Ago

If you were to describe Georgia as it was millions of years ago, what would you say? If you guessed that most of Georgia was covered with water, you would agree with many geologists. There is evidence which indicates that, except for a narrow band of land dotted with volcanoes that ran through the upper coastal region, Georgia was totally under water. You would also agree with geologists if you said that, at one time, Georgia was south of the equator. According to the Continental Drift Theory, geologists believe much of the earth's present land area was once joined together. They think movement far below the earth's surface caused the land to rise above the water. Some of the movement were like volcanic eruptions and created mountains. While the movement was taking place, the continents very slowly separated from each other. They drained away from the land, and the earth began to look much as it does today.

Day 2 Testing the Model

You've learned about evidence that was used to construct the continental drift model. You've thought about ways that evidence argues in support of the model. How can you test the model? What other ways can the evidence be interpreted?

Work in groups of four to write a proposal to explore further the evidence for continental drift. You are going to ask for money to research continental drift. You must supply several things.

1. Draft an outline of the evidence as you understand it now.

2. State what tests you would like to make to confirm this idea. Write down two or three ideas of how you could test the hypothesis. Then write down the steps that would be necessary to do these tests.

3. Indicate your expected results.

4. Have a person speak for your group to present your ideas to the class.

5. List the ideas from all the groups on the chalkboard and note them on your paper.

6. Finally write a letter of support for this research to the funding company (your teacher). Explain why you think this research is important and how it might add to your understanding of Earth.

Day 3 How Do The Pieces Fit Together?

Materials: World Map with geologic features marked, tracing paper, colored pencils, pencils, paper and scissors

Scientists have gathered information to explain the apparent fit of Earth's continents. They have studies the evidence to see if it suggested that the continents had been joined at one time and then moved apart. This process is like fitting the pieces of a puzzle together.

Experiment with some evidence that can be used to put the continents together again as you try to answer the question, "Could the continents once have been joined?"

1. Trace the continents from a world map onto paper.

2. Mark the world map as shown with surface features and geologic features. Color each continent a different color. Be sure to outline Georgia. Cut out the continents.

3. Match the continents in as many ways as you can by shape alone. Record the number.

4. Match them by surface features. Keep track of the number.

5. Next, match them by both shape and features at the same time. When you have what you think is the best fit, make a good drawing of it. Make up a key and use it to show where the geologic and surface features are on your map.

Day 4 Where Will We Be in 10 Million Years?

Materials: World Map with geologic features marked, tracing paper, colored pencils, pencils, paper and scissors, 11 by 17 colored paper.

From evidence gathered over widely scattered areas of Earth, geologists devised a remarkable model of the continents and how they changed over time. From one large landmass, the model shows, continents split apart and moved. To accept this model requires thinking of Earth as a system in motion. If Earth is a system in motion, what might it look like many years from now?

You have seen throughout the lesson that evidence seems to support the idea of continental drift. Now it is time to take the next step. If continental drift occurred in the past, it may be reasonable to assume that it is occurring today. What might Earth look like in the future if continental drift continues.

1. Use the continents you cut out from the previous activity. Place them in their current relative positions on the sheet of colored paper. Now, make the drift.

2. When a continent drifts to the edge of the paper, it must reappear on the opposite edge.

3. Move each continent once.

4. Draw a rough sketch of relative positions.

5. You may continue to move continents, drawing a sketch of relative position after each move.

Day 6 & 7 Continental Drift Theory Assessment

Groups: Create a three dimensional visual representation of the Continental Drift Theory showing location changes of Georgia using the equator as a point of reference. This must include three models: Where was Georgia a million years ago? Where is Georgia now? Where will Georgia be in a million years?

Suggested materials:

poster board with construction paper, clay, salt/flour maps, cardboard, felt, polystyrene foam

Day 7 Earth - The Ultimate Recycler

Geologists discovered that Earth's crust and upper mantle do not form a rigid, unbroken shell, but a system consisting of plates that move and interact with one another. Large, moving pieces of Earth's crust and mantle are called plates. Plates move and interact with one another in a number of different ways. There are three ways that plates interact. Plates can move away from each other, or slide past each other. Plate boundaries fall into one of three categories, depending upon how they are moving. Plates collide at convergent boundaries. Plates move away from each other at divergent boundaries. At transform boundaries, plates slide past each other.

At each type of boundary, one or more interactions occur. For instance, at transform boundaries one plate slides past another. As the edges move in opposite directions, strain builds. These boundary meeting places are called strike-slip faults. Many earthquakes occur along these faults, and often you can see the pattern of the fault on Earth's surface. The San Andreas Fault in California is an example.

At convergent boundaries a different type of interaction occurs. One plate is forced down beneath another plate. One plate can plunge to depths as great at 700 kilometers (about 435 miles) beneath the surface.

Geologists call this process subduction. When subduction involves the interaction between two ocean plates, a trench is formed.

Divergent plate boundaries are marked by ocean ridges. Ocean ridges were an exciting discovery. Many people had thought of the ocean floor as flat. Instead, geologists discovered that under the sea a ridge of mountains snaked its way around the globe. The ridges were distinctive because rift valleys were present in the centers of the ridges. A rift valley or rift is a place on Earth's crust where two plates are moving away from one another rather than toward one another. While rifts are often found between two ocean plates, they also can be found on continents. One of the most famous rift valleys found on continental crust is the East African Rift system, which includes three major rifts. One of the rifts includes Olduvai Gorge, which is famous for the fossils of ancestral humans.

As two plates move away from each other at a rift, part of Earth's molten layer is exposed at the surface and new rock is formed. When this happens at an ocean ridge, the addition of new rock pushes the sea floor apart. This is called sea-floor spreading.

Sea-floor spreading has been shown to occur at the ocean ridges.

Day 8 Identifying Movement Features

Mountain Building

Mountain formation occurs over millions of years. Mountains are found on every continent and on ocean floors. The four kinds of mountains are named for the ways they were formed. Here are examples of each formation:

Folded Mountains: Appalachians and Himalayas

Fault Block Mountains: Sierra Nevadas and Grand Tetons

Volcanic Mountains: Mount Rainier and Mount Fujiyama

Dome Mountains: Black Hills of Dakota and Adirondacks

Draw, label and color various formations (plateaus, plains, mountains, trenches, volcanoes, rifts) caused by plate movements discussed on Day 7. Be sure to label the Appalachian Mountains to tie this in to the study of Georgia.

Days 9, 10 & 11

Day 13 Georgia Rocks and Minerals

Using the Major Products Map of Georgia, locate the different rocks and minerals found in Georgia.

Georgia contains sizable deposits of several important minerals. The inner Coastal Plains regions have deposits of kaolin, a high-grade white clay. Beautiful marble is found on the Piedmont Plateau north of Atlanta, and Stone Mountain, east of Atlanta, is one of the largest known single masses of exposed granite in the world. Other minerals found in the state include coal, sand and gravel, talc, soapstone, barite, manganese, and bentonite. Much of the state's soil has a reddish tint because of its high clay content. Currently, June, 1997, mining for titanium is proposed for land near the Okefenokee Swamp Wildlife Refuge.

Using Georgia's Geographic Regions Map, label and draw in the minerals found in each region. Follow up with these questions which can be completed in groups:

1. Which region had the most mineral deposits?

2. Which region had the least mineral deposits?

3. Which minerals did you find in more than one region?

Day 14 & 15 Researching Georgia's Minerals

Students are to select 5 rocks or minerals found in Georgia. They are to research each mineral to find its uses and economic impact, if any, on Georgia.

As an assessment, they must create a three dimensional model of the minerals found in Georgia. An idea is to use half a sheet of poster board. Draw an outline of Georgia. Using pipe cleaners, cotton balls, construction paper, felt, etc., they must show the location of their minerals.

The students should also present their project giving facts and information on their five minerals found in Georgia.

Social Studies

Day 1 Georgia's Relationship to the World: Where in the World is Georgia?

Teacher note: It may be beneficial to make overheads of the four maps.

Begin by showing the world map- Map 1. Discuss the different continents locating North America. Locate the United States and lead to the location of Georgia.

Show Map 2. Discuss the size of Georgia in relation to the rest of North America.

Show Map 3. Discuss the size of Georgia in relation to the rest of the states.

Show Map 4 of the outline of Georgia. Ask the students to compare what they saw in the four maps. Discuss where in the world Georgia is located.

Next show the Georgia's Geographic Regions - Map 5. Discuss the different land regions in Georgia.

There are twenty-four physiographic (natural characteristics of the earth's surface) patterns in Georgia. These natural divisions differ both in area and I their land base, which may be limestone, clay sediment, shale, or marsh. However, there are enough similarities among the twenty-four patterns that they can be combined into five major physiographic regions:

The Ridge and Valley Region

This region has low open valleys and narrow ridges which run parallel to the valleys. Elevation ranges from 700 to 1,600 feet above sea level. The region runs from Polk and Barrow counties northward to Chattanooga, Tennessee. It is known for textile and carpet manufacturing. The regions is surrounded by the Piedmont Region to the south, the Appalachian Plateau to the west and the Blue Ridge Region to the east.

The Appalachian Plateau

The Appalachian Plateau, also known as Lookout and Sand mountain plateaus, is a small region in the northwestern corner of the state and includes Dade County and part of Walker County. The plateau is made up of two flat-topped mountains that drop into Lookout and Chickamauga valleys. At the base of both steep mountains are almost vertical cliffs 200 to 300 feet in height.

The Blue Ridge Region

The Blue Ridge is a hundred miles wide and has an area of about two thousand square miles. The highest and largest group of mountains in Georgia is in this region. These mountains are important to the rest of the state because they are the first barrier to warm, moist air rising from the Gulf of Mexico. When that air makes contact with the high mountains, it cools. The rain or snow which results provides water for the entire state. Here, precipitation can exceed eighty inches per year. Brasstown Bald, the highest peak in the state, is in this region. The Blue Ridge Region contains a large percent of the state's forest land. It is also known for its recreational opportunities.

The Piedmont Region

The Piedmont Region begins in the mountain foothills of northern Georgia and goes to the central part of the state. It has gently sloping hills and valleys in the north, flatlands in the south, and most of its soil is Georgia's well-known red clay. About one-third of the state's land area and one-half of the population are in the Piedmont Region. It is the cotton belt of antebellum days. Today, it is known for the production of wheat, soybeans, corn, poultry and cattle. Business and industry also flourish throughout the area.

The Coastal Plain Region

The Coastal Plain Region is about three-fifths of the state. It is divided into the Inner Coastal Plain and the Outer Coastal Plain. The inner plain has a mild climate, a good supply of underground water, and is the major agricultural region of the state. Its soil varies from limestone to clay. The Vidalia Upland has become world famous because of the unique sweet onions which grow there.

The outer plain does not have drained soil to provide fertile farmlands, but it is the center of naval stores and pulp production in the state. Along the coast, the deep harbors and barrier islands offer recreational facilities, seafood gathering and processing industries and major shipyard ports.

Day 2 and 3 Physical Features of Georgia

Using the lap maps and an overhead of the Georgia Counties Map- Map 6, review the five regions of Georgia. Locate and identify the barrier islands, Fall line, and Okefenokee Swamp. Put up the Georgia Map - Map 7 and identify the major rivers in Georgia. At this time, introduce Georgia's seven wonders. Have the student locate each on their maps.


Color/label five regions

Trace/color major rivers

Draw in the fall line

Draw in/label the barrier islands.

Label/color the Okefenokee Swamp

Draw in the counties which contain the seven wonders.

Days 4 & 5 Climate

The two Coastal Plain regions of Georgia and the Piedmont Plateau area have a humid subtropical climate. The southern location, relatively low elevation, and nearness to the comparatively warm waters of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico produce a climate with long, hot summers, short, mild winters, and rainfall at all times of year. The climate is classified as humid continental in the Blue Ridge, Valley and Ridge, and Cumberland Plateau regions of the north. Summer temperatures in these areas are cooler than in southern Georgia, and winters are colder, although not severe. Some winter snowfall occurs in the northern regions. Because moist marine air is forced to rise when it meets the mountains, the Blue Ridge receives the most precipitation in the state. In Georgia as a whole, the rainier times of the year are in the winter and summer; the average precipitation is about 1270 mm (about 50 in). The recorded temperature in the state has ranged from -27.2C (-17F), in Rome in the northwest, to 44.4C (112F) in 1952 at Louisville in the east.


Using the 1997 Almanac, locate the following information:

1. What is the average amount of annual rainfall (precipitation) in Georgia?

2. What is the average monthly temperature in Atlanta, GA in January? In June? In July? In October?

3. What is the record high temperature for Georgia? In Fahrenheit and Celsius? When and where did these temperatures occur? What was the elevation?

4. What is the record low temperature in Georgia in Fahrenheit and Celsius? When and where did these temperatures occur? What was the elevation?

Complete the Precipitation in Georgia handout.

Days 6 - 10 Georgia's Geological and Historical Time

Have the students research the following cultural periods with the students as they relate to Georgia. They should include approximate dates, any people or animals that were prevalent during that time period and any discoveries made during that time period.

Paleo Period

Archaic Period

Woodland Period

Mississippian Period

The students will then use this information to construct a timeline which includes all of the information.

Days 11 - 15 See Georgia? An integrated Language Arts and Social Studies Activity

Now it's time to pull together all of the wonderful information you have taught for the last two weeks. This is a group project so your students need to be in groups of three or four.

The assignment is to pick a famous (or not so famous) location in Georgia. It can be one of the seven wonders, a city, a county, etc. The students are to design a travel brochure and create a television commercial to entice travelers to visit their attraction.

The brochure should contain a map of Georgia with the attraction identified. It should also contain a large colored visual aid to enhance the brochure. Both sides of the brochure should be colorful and informative. Remember, they must persuade a traveler to stop at their attraction.

The television commercial should contain characters with a dialog.

They must also write a slogan and a jingle which they must perform.

Give one day for the students to practice and one day for the class performances and presentations.

Process Strands:

The four process strands are communication, problem solving/reasoning, making learning relevant, and critical thinking are addressed in all or part of each activity. Communication is a process skill that the students will use in every activity as they write, compose, draw, graph, diagram, and speak while working on the activities. Problem solving and reasoning is evident in many of the activities such as the Prospector activity which emphasizes reasoning and finding solutions to a given problem. The language arts activities are excellent examples of making learning relevant as the students are exploring life on the Okefenokee swamp and researching the Seven wonders of Georgia. Creative thinking is evident as the students will be using research skills to draw conclusions about the constant state of changes in Georgia.

Performance Tasks:

Language Arts Assessments

Project "It's a Swamp Thing"

Creativity a. unique b. colorful (in words or picture)

Demonstrates Understanding of the Okefenokee Swamp

a. uses descriptive words or captures description in a picture

b. contains 10 details of Swamp life


a. presentation flows

b. prepared and practiced

Effective Speaker

a. faces audience

b. speaks loudly and clearly

c. familiar with parts spoken

d. explains picture effectively

e. stage presence(doesn't lean on desk or wall, no hands in pockets, etc.,)

Written Work

a. content

b. organization

c. grammar and spelling


Visual aid

a. neatly drawn

b. neatly colored

c. organized in structure

d. content of picture

Each category is worth 10 points. Total 50 points

1--not demonstrating an understanding of the knowledge of concept and/or did not meet criteria of assignment.

10--demonstrates knowledge and understanding, meets criteria of assignment to its fullest.

Second Activity Questions for the novel Seeds of Change

Answer the questions after your group finishes reading the segment for the day. Discuss and each person write the answers to the questions below.

1. What does Rachel's father plan to do? List the positive attributes and drawbacks of the project.

2. How does Rachel first feel about going to Georgia? Why?

3. Why do you think the people in the store talked so negatively about the swamp flower? What does the swamp flower symbolize to the people?

4. What was Rachel's first reaction to the swamp. What caused her to feel this way?

5. List many, varied words and/or phrases that describe the swamp.

6. List many, varied phrases that describe the "Flower Woman." What impression does she make on you? Why?

7. What does the "Flower Woman" represent in the story? (What does she symbolize?)

8. Why do Rachel's feelings about the Swamp Land Theme Park change?

9. List many, varied ways in which the swamp is unique and an unusual place?

10. Explain why you think the author chose Seeds of Change as the title of the story?

11. Predict many, varied consequences that might have happened if Rachel's had gone ahead with the theme park?

Third Project: writing --The Seven Wonders--2 paragraph persuasive essay

60% = content and persuasion techniques

40%= grammar, usage, spelling


Describe the criteria for measuring levels of student performance

Materials & Resources:

Identify specific materials and resources for teacher and student use, and include copyright references

Web Links:

Okenfenokee Joe Education Center

Songs from the Okefenokee

Okefenokee Reference Page

Georgia Maps

Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge

Wildlife Refuge

Georgia Fact Sheet

Content Map Reference(s):


5e. Construct a timeline showing the earth's geological changes through time.

QCC Reference(s):


1. Process Skills

2. Safety

4. Identifies minerals by physical properties such as hardness, shape, color, luster, streak, cleavage, and fracture.

5. Differentiates among rocks based on origins (igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary) and mineral content.

6. Recognizes constructive and destructive earth forces.

a. Constructs models of volcanoes, mountain building and plate tectonics.

7. Recognizes major symbols, series, scales and colors conventionally used to represent features on topographic maps and various earth models.

8. Recognizes specific topographic features related to constructive and destructive forces.

10. Describes earth history and recognizes that change occurs constantly and slowly over time.

ITBS Reference(s):


Reading Comprehension



The student recognizes the incorrect capitalization of a common noun.

The student recognizes the incorrect lack of capitalization of the first word of a sentence.

The student recognizes the incorrect lack of capitalization of a geographical name.


Usage and Expression

Social Studies

The student recognizes the most direct route between two points, using a global map.

The student identifies the direction of a route, using a global map.

The student recognizes a conclusion drawn from data on a graph.

The student recognizes a predictable outcome, using a graph.

The student identifies an inference about a cause and effect relationship, using a graph.

The student identifies a detail from a graph.

Maps and Diagrams

The student selects the intermediate directional flow of a body of water, using transportation, precipitation, and/or resource maps.

The student identifies the amount of precipitation for a region, using transportation, precipitation and/or resource maps.

The student identifies a comparison or contrast between two entries on a table.

Reference Materials

The student identifies the research source sued to locate periodicals.

The student selects a key term for a research purpose.

The student identifies the page on which a specific topic is located, using a key word and a subheading in a book index.

The student selects the key terms in a multi-worded research project.

Math Concepts and Estimation

The student solves a word problem using ratio and proportion.

The student determines and compares the ranges of several sets of data.

Math Problem Solving and Data Interpretation

The student selects how to solve a word problem involving distance and percent increase.

The student analyzes data presented in a table.

Mathematics Computation


The student recalls how a balance scale works.

The student makes a conclusion about a given geologic era.

The student interprets a diagram showing layers of the earth's surface.

The student recalls the cooling of the earth's surface.

Georgia High School Graduation Test Reference(s):

Identify GHSGT objectives addressed in this unit for high school.

National Standards Reference(s):

Identify National Standards addressed in this unit


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