Introduction & Overview:
Describe the purpose and rationale for the unit and provide a brief summary
Content Strands, Benchmarks & Performance Standards, Process Strands, Content Maps, Content Outline, Content Background, Performance Tasks, Student Preparation, Materials & Resources, Instructional Activities, Web Links, Rubrics, QCCs, ITBS, National Standards
Identify the benchmarks and performance standards addressed in this unit
Enter the content outline for this unit
Unusual Soldiers - Wartime: (A.) 1940 - First African American General, Benjamin O. Davis becomes a Brigadier General. (B.) May 14, 1942 - (WAACS) 350,000 women. Congress establishes Women's Auxiliary Army Corps - noncombat at home and overseas. (C.) July 30,1942 - (WAVES) Women accepted for voluntary emergency services. This is the first time women could officially serve in the military.
I. Listed below are vocabulary words which should be introduced as needed when teaching this unit:
Vocabulary - World War II
Allies, atom bomb, axis powers, "Big Three", Sir Winston Churchill, concentration camps, D - Day, dictator, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Hiroshima, Adolf Hitler, Holocaust, home front, Jews, Benito Mussolini, Nagasaki, Nazis, patriotic, Pearl Harbor, ration, relocation camps, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Rosie the Riveter, Joseph Stalin, Swastika, General Hideki Toja. Harry S. Truman, veteran, V-E Day, V-J Day, war bonds, radiation.
I. Listed below are suggestions for Daily Diary Topics:
1. I will always remember where I was when I heard the news about Pearl Harbor.
2. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed an order sending Japanese Americans to Relocation Camps. One of my classmates was sent away and ......
3. Things have really changed at our house since my dad went to fight in the war and my mom went to work at the defense plant.
4. My friends and I are doing all we can to help the war effort.
5. I wonder if life will ever be the way it was before World War II. Something that I know will never be the same is.....
II. Novel Activities for Number the Stars, by Lois Lowery.
contempt, impassive, lanky, obstinate, prodded, residential, stocky, sulking, Resistance
crocheting, engagement, trousseau, finance
dawdled, drawn, haughtily, hesitated, sarcastically, scamper
Chapters 4 and 5
glowering, exasperated, pondered, disdainfully, belligerently, imperious, Star of David, rationed, startling, accented, stalk, peering, harsh, wispy, winced, imprinted
Chapters 6 and 7
suspicious, tentatively, reluctantly, puzzling, chirped, sprawling, dawdle, awe, gnarled, anchored, harbor, appliqued
Chapters 8 9
relocate, ruefully, burial, fascinated, specter, deftly, dismayed, hearse, mourning
Chapters 10 and 11
staccato, condescending, typhus, extinguished, psalm, ancient, cruel, rummaging, refashion, mismatched, fluttered, bulky, Godspeed, misshapen, Sabbat
Chapters 12 and 13
pried, squinted, faltered, fiercely, quickly, unnecessarily
Chapters 14 and 15
donned, shivered, latticed, scampering, wriggle, segment, brusque, shimmering, tantalize, taut, withering, insolently, caustic, quavering
Chapters 16 and 17
warily, interrupted, lunged, courageous, shrieked, deprivation, sacrifices, courage, integrity
Additional Word List:
Chapters l - 4
Nazi, sabotage, kroner, rabbi, Halte, occupation, swastika, synagogue, submerged
Chapters 5 - 8
shoreline, pose, exasperation, hazy, military arrest, imprinted
Chapters 9 - 12
rhythmically, urgency, pride, unfamiliar, exhausted surge
Chapters 13 - 15
drunkard, stricken, exasperated, contempt, sprawling, visible, saliva, tantalize
Chapters 16 and 17
courageous, balcony, deprivation, permeated, concealed, anthem, executed heroine, cocaine
>Content strand foreign language, communication, grade 5 #1(German spoken in novel)
III. Visit the house of Anne Frank.
IV. Visit the Holocaust museum.
V. Holocaust Activity:
1. Divide the class randomly. Give ½ blue dots and ½ black dots. Tell students that one group(blue), are faster runners and better spellers. Discuss the unfairness of the sorting procedure and the basis for the Holocaust. Have students sort students in the class in numerous ways. Compare Hitler's sorting method during the Holocaust. (Science, Strand Life Processes #16)
VI. Recycling Activity:
1. During WWII, recycling included nylon, synthetic stockings, rags, scrap tires, raincoats, garden hoses, land, dead animals, and old phonograph records, and others. These items were used to make tanks, ships, guns, ammunition and clothing. "Timely Trash" pages 15 -18 from Waste in Place.. Another activity from this same source is "What were they?" and "Use it, wear it out, make it do or do without."
VII. Math activity: Life on the Front/Conditions of Soldiers
The "melt in your mouth, not in your hand" candies were perfect for soldiers who couldn't have sticky hands or weapons. NOTE: Prior to initiating this activity, the teacher should give the following information to the students: In 1940, Forrest Marsana Bruce Marrie of the Mass copany developed M&M candies for the U.S. Army.
Objectives: The student will be able to identify the importance of rationing.
Materials: Coupons and points chart
Procedures: Review the hardships of WWII and discuss supply shortages. Discuss the office of Price Administration's law of rationing. Give students a ration coupon worth 100 points. Subtract 10 points for activities such as : when students break, sharpen pencils, socialize, lunch, computer, library, etc. Students will understand these necessary activities cost them points, as food and gasoline cost the people points during WWII.
Optional: Students with points left over can turn them into minutes of free time.
>Strand - Cultural and Environment #6, ABC
>Strand - Number Sense, Numeration, and operation #3
VIII. Math activity: Life on the Front/Conditions of Soldiers
NOTE: Prior to initiating this activity, the following information will need to be given to the students: Statistics were an important part of WWII. These are facts from the period: 15 million men - 200,000 women served in the war. 6 million homemakers left home to take jobs in order to help war efforts. Women were not allowed to serve as combat pilots, but they became "Women's Air Force Service Pilots (WASPS) 25,000 applied to be WASPS, 1,000 actually became WASPS. Total casualties were 1,215,954. 405,399 were killed, 139,709 prisoners or missing, 670,846 wounded. Recycling (salvaging drives), 7 million tons of scrap paper, and 18 million tons of scrap metal. (Metric, 6.3+ and 16.3+ respectively) The statistics of the results of the atomic bomb at Hiroshima are: 60,000 killed instantly, 40,000 died soon after and 100,000 died in the years after.
Objective: The student will have a working knowledge of probability skills.
Materials: M & M's, lineless paper, crayons
Procedures: Give students M&M's and use the tally method for graphing the information on paper by color. (For example, blue and red.) After graphing, question students on chances, statistics, and probability. Example: What are your chances of picking a blue M&M instead of a red.
>Strand - Patterns and relationships #9
>Strand - Probability and Statistics #12
XI. Social Studies Activity: Forget Me Not, video
NOTE: So that your students will fully benefit from this activity, it will be necessary that they have prior knowledge about the Holocaust, German occupation and concentration camps.
Objective: Students will be able to list events which affected the character to change.
X. Music Activities
Objective: The learner will listen to music from the World War II period and develop an understanding of how music relates to history.
Procedures: (1.) The students will listen to songs and explain the relationship between the lyrics and the war. (2.) Show appropriate excerpts from the movie "Swing Kid" to demonstrate the relationship between thoughts influenced by thought, beliefs and behaviors. (3.) Students can give examples of modern songs about current events and political issues. An example of this would be Garth Brooks', The Change" which is about the Oklahoma City bombing
XI. Social Studies/Geography Activities
Objective: The student will be able to use critical thinking skills to identify the allied and axis powers.
Materials: CRAM map kit, Map of Europe Handout for each child, crayons,(red and blue)
Procedures: The teacher should give students a map of Europe. Students should color the countries controlled by the axis powers in red. Students should color the countries controlled by the allies in blue. Students should be instructed to make a legend and a map key. Also, when doing this activity, students can be directed to Activity #32 and Activity #33 which is located in your CRAM map kit. (Strands: research #11 and Natural Environment #8)
Assessment: What factors determined which countries were first invaded by the German forces?
A. Background: Students will be familiar with the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the location and population of Japanese settlements in the U.S., and the relocation/internment of Japanese citizens. (Text references-Our World, PP.544-545 and pp.550-551)
Objectives: Students will identify how the American government mistreated Japanese Americans during WWII. Students will demonstrate critical thinking skills in class discussions. Students will empathize with Japanese interned in relocation camps.
Activity #1: Do "Citizenship and American Values Activity on pages 550-551 in Our Country.
Activity #2: (Taken from Creative Activities for Teachin U.S. History for 1940's and 50's By Stevens & Shea Publishers, Inc.) Ask students to decide what should be done about the Japanese living in the U.S. after the bombing of Pearl Harbor..
Activity #3: Read Aloud Baseball Saved Us by Ken Mochizuki. This book is about life for a young Japanese American boy living in an internment camp during WWII. It tells how creating a baseball field and team gave them purpose while enduring the humiliation and injustice of the camp. Possible follow-up activities include:
A. Divide class into small groups and have them plan possible activities to keep people confined to the camps from becoming bored or depressed.
B. The heroe's father said, "But it's wrong we're in here. We're Americans too."
Write an essay on the topic "What Makes You An American?"
C. When the Japanese were sent to camps, they could take few personal posessions. Imagine you are being sent to an internment camp. Choose three items you will take and explain your choices to your group.
D. Make a chart to compare and contrast life at home with life in a camp.
E. The camps were supposed to protect Japanese, not punish them. Discuss things the government could have done to make life in the camps more pleasant.
A. Math focus: Objective: Add 5 and 6-digit numerals. Compute area in square miles.
Procedure: Research to find the square miles of each Allied country (Great Britain, France, and Russia). Add together. Find and add together the square miles of the Central Powers (Germany, Turkey, and Austria-Hungary.) Compare the total square miles.
If necessary, the teacher may provide the land area of each country. As an extension, this can be done with all the countries involved in World War I. Comparisons can be made to land area involved versus population.
ITBS- Math addition and multiplication. Finding area.
Objective: Add 6 and 7-digit numerals.
Procedure: Determine the population of each country. Add the populations of Allied countries. Add the populations of the Central Powers. Compare totals. Then research to determine the military deaths of each country. Compare by using percentages.
ITBS- Math addition and subtraction. Using calculators.
Objective: Multiply a 1-digit number by a 4-digit number. Divide a 5-digit number by 2. (Use a formula to compute ocean depth.)
Procedure: Students will determine how ocean depth is measured by sounding. Scientists have determined that the speed of sound in water is about 1524 meters per second (1524 m/s.) The formula for measuring ocean depth is D=1/2 T x V where D=depth, T=time, and V=velocity or speed of sound in water (1524 meters per second.) Provide students with a list of hypothetical sonar readings ranging from 1 to 9 seconds. Instruct students to compute the oceans depth at each reading. Construct a table displaying the ocean's depth at a given location. From the depths computed plot to create a bar graph. The students then can draw a map of the ocean floor in that location.
Note- This activity may take a couple of days to complete.
ITBS- Science properties of sound and water. Science characteristics of the Earth.
B. Science focus:
Objective: Identify the oceans of the world and the seas surrounding Europe.
Procedure: Consult Addison-Wesley Air and Water Ch. 3 Ocean Features page 44. Provide students with a blank map of the world. Instruct students to locate and label the oceans. Provide students with research materials to discover ocean depths at various points. (This may require teacher assistance. Adjust as necessary.) Students locate and plot ocean depths on their map.
ITBS- Science -Earth.
ITBS- Maps and diagrams.
Objective: TSW describe ways light can be controlled.
Procedure: Instruct students on the properties of mirrors and light reflection. Demonstrate how the Germans used periscopes to successfully manuever their U-boats. Provide directions and materials for constructing a periscope.
ITBS- Social studies - inventions
C. Social Studies focus:
Objective: TSW identify underlying causes of World War I.
Procedure: Begin reading about WWI in the social studies book pages 523-527. This short section provides a brief summary of the war. (Students will need to complete outside reading and research in order to gain a more complete understanding of this war.)
ITBS- Reading comprehension
Procedure 2: Assign a project to be completed at home. Instruct students to make a poster depicting Europe in 1914. Stress accuracy and neatness. Posters should be displayed so that comparisons can be made to post-war national borders.
Procedure 3: Students should research to discover the technological developments that made WWI different than past wars. Possible topics are: tanks, airplanes, submarines, machine guns, Browning revolvers, sonar, and Fokker airplanes. Assign a small group to each topic. Groups should work cooperatively to research topic and produce an informative graphic display to present to the class. Presentation should emphasize how the technological advances affected the way the war was fought.
ITBS- Social studies- inventions
Objective: TSW identify the reasons why the USA entered the war.
Procedure: Read about the events that drew the USA into WWI. Pretend to be President Wilson. Write a speech to Congress asking them to declare war on Germany and the Central Powers. Be convincng. List details of violent acts against civilians of the USA and other countries.
ITBS- Social studies - Laws and their effects. Also cause/effect.
Procedure: Discuss events which led to the end of the war.
ITBS- Reading- cause/effect.
D. Reading focus
Objective: TSW explore historical literature by reading a biography or autobiography.
Procedure: Provide a list of famous people available for selection. Include people important for their work in science, the military, medicine, government, literature, and the arts. If possible, assign small cooperative groups to read a book. Groups should read and discuss book while the teacher monitors progress and helps provide topics for discussion.
Assessment: Students will create an activity or graphic display to present to the class to summarize the chosen persons life.
Objective: TSW listen to oral reading.
Procedure: The teacher may read aloud books pertinent to World War I. Titles include "The Private War of Lillian Adams" by Barbara Corcoran and "The Year of the Perfect Christmas Tree" by Gloria Houston.
E. English focus
Objective: TSW properly use quotation marks while writing a speech.
Procedure: Instruct the students to pretend to be President Wilson addressing a group of reporters. Write a speech explaining the outbreak of war in Europe. Make sure the students provide details. Also, emphasize the need to keep the public calm and confident that they are not in danger because of the fighting in Europe. Review proper use of quotation marks and check for correct use.
ITBS- Language- punctuation, capitalization, usage, and expression.
Objective: TSW identify and discuss cause and effect.
Procedure: Read to the students how a Serbian student assassinated Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. Direct students to empathize with the people of Austria-Hungary. Instruct students to write a declaration of war from Austria-Hungary to Serbia. Included in the declaration should be their feelings and rationale for retaliating with force.
ITBS- Reading - cause/effect
Objective: TSW demonstrate persuasive writing.
Procedure: Advise the students that they will pretend to be the small country of Serbia. Upon receiving a declaration of war from the larger Austria-Hungary they begin to panic. Students will write a letter to Serbia's friend, Russia, begging for help. Emphasize this communication must be persuasive enough for Russia to agree to join in the confrontation. To make this meaningful for children the teacher should ask them to think like a deperate, whiny, little child begging a bigger child for help because he has just antagonized someone else.
ITBS- Language- punctuation, capitalization, usage, and expression.
F. Spelling focus
Objective: TSW correctly spell the names of countries involved in the war.
Procedure: Identify the Allied and Central Powers involved in World War I. List in columns on the board (or chart). The students should correctly copy the words in their notebooks. Instruct them to write afactual sentence about each country. They should use their social studies book as reference. Provide about 10 minutes for students to study the words then tell them to find a partner to test with. Partners exchange notebooks and test each other.
ITBS- Spelling and vocabulary.
Objective: TSW spell words pertinent to World War I.
Procedure: Direct students to use research books or other sources to find words pertinent to WWI. Social studies books, biographies, and other reference books make good sources. List words. Instruct students to choose ten words and list them in their notebook. Tell them to write sentences with their chosen words. Finally, have partners test each other.
ITBS- Spelling and vocabulary.
G. Health focus
Objective: TSW identify diseases common to soldiers during WWI.
Procedure: Research health problems faced by the military. Disentary, malnutrition, "cooties," and trench foot are a few possible health problems for research.
H. Music focus
Objective: TSW sing songs about WWI.
Procedure: Teach the students songs about WWI. Possible titles are: "Over There," "A Long Way to Tipperary," and "Oh, How I Hate to Get up in the Morning."
Describe how process strands are addressed in this unit
Identify activities and evidence that may be used to assess student performance
Describe the criteria for measuring levels of student performance
Austin Road Elementary Resources
World War II. Teacher Created Materials, Inc. 1994.
Project INSIGHT, Griffin RESA, Griffin, Georgia, Innovation Program. The Georgia Department of Education, 1993
Suggested books for this unit:
Houghton Mifflin Education
World War II Memories
Identify the content map objectives addressed in this unit
Identify QCC objectives addressed in this unit
Identify ITBS objectives addressed in this unit
Identify GHSGT objectives addressed in this unit for high school.
Identify National Standards addressed in this unit